Ilman Muhammad
Director of Oceans Program
Yayasan Konservasi Alam Nusantara

Ilman Muhammad is the Director of Oceans Program at the Yayasan Konservasi Alam Nusantara, an Indonesia’s NGO, previously known as The Nature Conservancy Indonesia. He has worked for nearly 20 years as an advisor in several international organizations, working on coastal and marine resources management issues, especially in mangrove conservation, fisheries and aquaculture, and climate change. These included UNDP, USAID, WWF, Wetlands International, and some commercial seafood industries. Ilman has a Bachelor’s degree in Marine Science from IPB University, Indonesia, and a PhD in Environmental Management from the University of Queensland, Australia.

Session 6 Weak Links In The Supply Chain
Presentation Challenges And Opportunities In Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Indonesia's Shrimp Aquaculture


Shrimp aquaculture is among the world’s fastest-growing and the most valuable seafood commodity traded globally, accounting for 15% of the total value of the global internationally seafood trade. The majority of shrimp is farmed in developing countries and contributes significantly to their local economy.  Seafood consumption demand will continue to increase until 2030 and major producer countries like Indonesia have set up ambitious targets to increase export volumes up to 250% by 2024. The move could help local and national economies but without careful planning, it could also undermine global efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Many of the farms have been constructed within the mangrove ecosystem. This practice is a major contributor to the reduction of global mangrove ecosystems. Some research suggest that the production of 1 kg shrimp from mangrove-converted ponds could emit over 2,000kg CO2-e. Fortunately, there are ways to together, improve the ecosystem as well as reduce GHG emissions while achieving the national shrimp production targets.

In Indonesia, for example, most of the 600,000 ha shrimp farms are extensive farms with low productivity converted from mangroves. A combination of natural mangrove restoration and improvement of aquaculture practices, will reverse the current status of the mangrove-converted pond as a net source to a net sink of GHG. This can be done by redesigning the existing extensive shrimp ponds layout to enable natural mangrove restoration in 50% – 80% of the ponds. The remaining areas can be allocated for aquaculture using intensive culture technology to increase production. This approach can potentially mitigate 1 billion tonnes CO2-e within 10 years while helping the country reach its production targets.